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                德國留學最新政策四大變化

                發布時間:2014-12-29

                  近年來,德國日漸成為一個熱門的出國留學目的地。然而日前,德國在學費、學制、打工和入學條件四大方面的政策調整,引起了學生和家長的廣泛關注。政策微調究竟是好是壞呢?

                  學費:收費已成為一種趨勢

                  德國聯邦憲法法院廢除了對第一學位課程以及與此銜接的碩士課程免收學費的禁止令。到目前為止,一共有7個聯邦州宣布收取學費,包括對留學生收取相應的學費,并且越來越多的聯邦州開始或者計劃收取學費,使收取學費成為一種大的趨勢。下薩克森州和北萊茵威斯特法倫州開始收取學費;2011年夏季學期起,巴伐利亞州、巴登符騰堡州以及漢堡開始收取學費;德國是一個聯邦制國家,每個聯邦州收取的學費各不相同,甚至每所學校收取的學費標準都不一樣,在某些聯邦州(目前是巴伐利亞和北萊茵威斯特法倫)學校可以在州政府規定的學費上限內自行規定收費標準,在北萊茵威斯特法倫州的大學甚至可以自行決定是否放棄收取學費。因此學生在出國之前,一定要直接咨詢學校外事處的人員或者相關人士。

                  學制:增加學士學位

                  德國大學自2010年起對學制進行了改革,并且計劃在未來5年之內逐步完成。原先,德國大學有基礎階段和專業階段兩個階段,在完成基礎階段后通過中期考試,合格后進入專業階段學習,最后完成學分和論文拿到碩士學位。也就是說,德國并沒有學士學位,要么完成大學兩個階段的學習順利畢業獲得碩士學位,要么就沒有任何文憑。如今,壓縮原來兩個階段的課程,取消中期考試,在學習中間增加了學士學位,本碩全面分開,即3年本科+2年碩士的形式,當學生完成本科階段學習后,可根據實際情況選擇是否繼續攻讀碩士。目前,大多數德國大學有選擇性地采用了新的學制體系,計劃在幾年內逐漸將本科學制從4—5年縮短到3-4年。

                  打工:從90天到180個半天

                  德國勞動和社會秩序部對外國留學生的打工時間做出了大幅有利的調整:以往,德國各州勞動局一般允許非歐盟國家學生每年工作90天,現在學生可以合法打工180個半天。雖然單純在數字方面并沒有多大變化,但是計算單位的變化,使打工時間也相應地出現了變化。在具體實施的過程中,留學生打工一般都是二三個小時,但是通常仍然會被記作一天,因此很多學生很快就達到了90個半天的標準。現在留學生打工二三個小時被記為一個半天,共有180個半天,實際上就多出了一倍的打工時間。

                  新措施的實施顯然為留學生帶來了真正的實惠。一般情況下,在德國打工每小時為7.5-8歐元,而且德國政府允許大學生免稅打工,并規定了保護性的最低報酬標準,節假日里打工的薪水還能翻倍。所以留學生除了要自備第一年的生活費外,其余的費用完全可憑打工解決。

                  入學條件:需取得留德審核證書

                  中國學生前往德國就讀大學,不論是就讀國際課程還是就讀傳統德語授課的課程,必須取得留德審核證書。出國留學德國的學歷資格須滿足以下條件的其中一條(大學指中國教育部認可的全日制普通高等院校):

                  一、學習十二年,高中畢業后,通過正式高考進入:1、重點大學(國家211工程院校)四年制本科,至少修滿1學期;普通大學四年制本科,至少修滿3個學期,可以取得直接德國入學資格;2、普通大學四年制本科,至少修滿1個學期,必須讀一年預科或直接通過預科的"大學入學資格鑒定考試"后取得德國大學入學資格方可入學。3、三年制高等專科學校(即"大專")畢業后,必須讀預科或直接通過預科的"大學入學資格鑒定考試"后取得德國大學入學資格方可入學。

                  二、學習十一年,高中畢業生,通過正式高考進入重點大學(國家211工程院校)四年制本科,至少修滿3個學期;普通大學四年制本科至少修滿5個學期,則可申請直接取得德國大學入學資格。

                  三、成人教育,自學考試,電大,夜大,業大,職業教育,遠程網絡教育,短期培訓等非中國全日制普通高等教育學生(如果取得學士學位證書后,可以先遞交學位證書的復印件,在進行鑒定后,根據具體情況進行個案處理)。



                資訊來源:來源網絡

                責任編輯:孫卉

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